What is IRNSS? Indian Location Tracking System

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In our journey, we use a tracking system to find our route. There are many foreign options for the location tracking system. But do you know? India has it’s own satellite tracking system, called as IRNSS. In this article, we will get informed about the Growth, Future developments, purposes, Facts About IRNSS, Advantages, Accuracy, System description. Want to know, What is IRNSS? and it’s Benefits?  You will understand all about…

  • IRNSS(Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System)
  • The operation NavIC
  • Background 
  • Growth
  • The timeframe
  • System description
  • Floor phase
  • Sign
  • Accuracy
  • Clock failure
  • Future developments
  • Global Indian Navigation System (GINS)
  • Advantages
  • purposes
  • Facts About IRNSS

The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), with an operational, identity of NavIC is an autonomous regional Satellite Navigation system that gives correct real-time positioning and timing providers.




It covers India and an area extending 1,500 km (930 mi) around it, with plans for an additional extension.

  • A prolonged service space lies between the first service space and a rectangle space enclosed by the 30th parallel South to the 50th parallel north and the 30th meridian east to the 130th meridian east, 1,500–6,000 km (930–3,730 mi) past borders.
  • The system at the moment consists of a constellation of seven satellites, with two further satellites on the floor as stand-by.



The constellation is in orbit as of 2018, and the system was anticipated to be operational from early 2018 after a system verify.

  1. NavIC will present two ranges of service, the “commonplace positioning service”, which will likely be open for civilian use, and a “restricted service” for authorized customers (together with the army).
  2. NavIC based mostly trackers are obligatory on industrial autos in India and it’s deliberate to turn out to be obtainable in shopper mobile phones within the first half of 2020.
  • There are plans to increase the NavIC system by growing its constellation measurement from 7 to 11.

1. Background of IRNSS

The system was developed partly as a result of entry to international government-controlled global navigation satellite systems just isn’t assured in hostile conditions, as occurred to the Indian army in 1999 when United States denied the Indian request for Global Positioning System (GPS) information for the Kargil area which might have offered important information.

Also, see How GPS Works | GPS Location Tracker

  • The Indian authorities authorized the undertaking in could 2013.
  1. As per the National Defence Authorization Act (NDAA) 2020, the United States Secretary of Defence in session with the Director of National Intelligence will designate NavIC, Galileo, and QZSS as allied navigational satellite systems.

2. Growth

As a part of the undertaking, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) opened a brand new satellite system navigation center inside the campus of ISRO.

  • Deep Space Network (DSN) at Bilal, in Karnataka on 28 Could 2013. A community of 21 ranging stations positioned throughout the nation will present information for the orbital determination of the satellites and monitoring of the navigation sign.

An aim of full Indian management has been acknowledged, with the area phase, ground segment, and consumer receivers all being inbuilt India.

  • Its location in low latitudes facilitates protection with low-inclination satellites. Three satellites will likely be in geostationary orbit over the Indian Ocean.
  1. Missile focusing on may very well be a necessary army software for the constellation.
  1. The overall price of the undertaking was anticipated to be ₹14.2 billion (the US $199 million), with the price of the bottom phase being ₹Three billion (the US $42 million), every satellite system costing ₹1.5 billion (the US $21 million) and the PSLV-XL model rocket costing around ₹1.Three billion (the US $18 million).
  • The deliberate seven rockets would have concerned an outlay of around ₹9.1 billion (the US $128 million).
  • The need for 2 substitute satellites, and PSLV-XL launches, has altered the unique funds, with the Comptroller and Auditor Basic of India reporting prices, to March 2017, at ₹22.46 billion (the US $315 million)

The NavIC sign was launched for analysis in September 2014.

  • From 1 April 2019, the use of AIS-140 compliant NavIC-based automobile monitoring methods has been made obligatory for all commercial vehicles in India.

In January 2020, Qualcomm launched three new chipsets, Snapdragon 720G, 662, and 460 with help for Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC). NavIC is deliberate to be obtainable for civilian use in cellular units after Qualcomm and Indian Space Research Organisation signed a settlement.

3. Timeframe of IRNSS

In April 2010, it was reported that India plans to begin launching satellites by the tip of 2011, at a charge of 1 satellite system every six months. This can have made NavIC useful by 2015. However this system was delayed, and India additionally launched three new satellites to complement this.

Seven satellites with the prefix “IRNSS-1” will represent the area phase of the IRNSS.

IRNSS-1A, the primary of the seven satellites, was launched on 1 July 2013.

IRNSS-1B has launched on Four April 2014 onboard a PSLV-C24 rocket.

  • The satellite system has been positioned in geosynchronous orbit.
  • IRNSS-1C was launched on 16 October 2014, IRNSS-1D on 28 March 2015, IRNSS-1E on 20 January 2016, IRNSS-1F on 10 March 2016, and IRNSS-1G was launched on 28 April 2016.

The eighth satellite system, IRNSS-1H, which was meant to exchange IRNSS-1A, didn’t deploy on 31 August 2017 because the heat shields didn’t separate from the 4th stage of the rocket.

IRNSS-1I was launched on 11 April 2018 to exchange it.

4. System description

Protection of NavIC

  • The IRNSS system includes an area phase and a help ground segment.
  • The constellation consists of eight satellites. Three of the eight satellites are positioned in geostationary orbit (GEO) at 32.5° E, 83° E, and 131.5° E longitude, roughly 36,000 km (22,000 mi) above earth floor. The remaining 5 satellites are in inclined geosynchronous orbit (GSO). Two of them cross the equator at 55° E and two at 111.75° E.
  1. The 4 GSO satellites will seem like shifting in the form of an “8”.

5. Floor phase

The floor Phase is chargeable for the upkeep and operation of the IRNSS constellation. The Floor phase includes:

  • IRNSS Spacecraft Management Facility (IRSCF)
  • IRNSS Vary and Integrity Monitoring Stations (IRIMS)
  • ISRO Navigation Centre (INC)
  • IRNSS Community Timing Centre (IRNWT)
  • IRNSS CDMA Ranging Stations (IRCDR)
  • Laser Ranging Stations
  • IRNSS Knowledge Communication Community(IRDCN)
  1. Rendering of an IRNSS Sequence 1 satellite system.
  1. The INC established at Byalalu performs distant operations and information assortment with all the bottom stations.
  2. 14 IRIMS are at the moment operational and are supporting IRNSS operations.
  3. CDMA ranging is being carried out by the 4 IRCDR stations on a common foundation for all of the IRNSS satellites.

The IRNWT has been established and is offering IRNSS system time with an accuracy of two ns (2.0×10−9 s) w.r.t UTC.

  • Laser ranging is being carried out with the help of ILRS stations all over the world.

The Navigation Software program is operational at INC since 1 August 2013. All of the navigation parameters viz. satellite system ephemeris, clock corrections, integrity parameters, and secondary parameters viz. ion-delay corrections, time offsets w.r.t UTC and different GNSS, textual content message, and earth orientation parameters are generated and uploaded to the spacecraft mechanically.

  • The IRDCN has established terrestrial and VSAT hyperlinks between the bottom stations. Seven 7.2-meter (24 ft.) FCA and two 11-meter (36 ft.) FMA of IRSCF is at the moment operational for LEOP and on-orbit phases of IRNSS satellites.

6. Sign

NavIC indicators will encompass a Commonplace Positioning Service and a Precision Service. Each will likely be carried on L5 (1176.45 MHz) and S-band (2492.028 MHz).

  • The SPS sign will likely be modulated by a 1 MHz BPSK sign.
  • The Precision Service will use BOC (5, 2).


The navigation indicators themselves could be transmitted within the S-band frequency (2–4 GHz) and broadcast through a phased array antenna to keep up the required protection and sign power.

The satellites would weigh roughly 1,330 kg (2,930 lb) and their photovoltaic panels generate 1,400w power.

A messaging interface is embedded within the NavIC system.

  • This characteristic permits the command heart to ship warnings to a selected geographic space.
  • For instance, fishermen utilizing the system may be warned a few cyclones.

7. Accuracy

The system is meant to supply an absolute place accuracy of higher than 10 meters (33 ft.) all through Indian landmass and higher than 20 meters (66 ft.) within the Indian Ocean in addition to an area extending roughly 1,500 km (930 mi) around India.

The Space Applications Centre in 2017 mentioned NavIC will present commonplace positioning service to all customers with a place accuracy as much as 5 m.

  • The GPS, for comparability, had a place accuracy of 20–30 m.
  • In contrast to GPS which relies solely on L-band, NavIC has twin frequency (S and L bands).

When a low-frequency sign travels through the environment, its velocity adjustments because of atmospheric disturbances.

  • US banks on the atmospheric mannequin to evaluate frequency error and it has to replace this mannequin now and then to evaluate the precise error.
  • In India’s case, the precise delay is assessed by measuring the distinction in the delay of twin frequency (S and L bands).

Due to this fact, NavIC just isn’t depending on any mannequin to search out the frequency error and is extra correct than GPS.

8. Clock failure

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In 2017, it was introduced that every-one three Spectra Time equipped rubidium atomic clocks onboard IRNSS-1A had failed, mirroring comparable failures within the European Union’s Galileo constellation.

The primary failure occurred in July 2016, adopted quickly after by the 2 different clocks on IRNSS-1A. This rendered the satellite System a non-functional and required substitute. ISRO reported it had changed the atomic clocks within the two standby satellites, IRNSS-1H and IRNSS-1I.

  • In June 2017 the next launch of IRNSS-1H, as a substitute for IRNSS-1A, was unsuccessful when the PSLV-C39 mission failed on 31 August 2017.
  • The second standby satellite System, IRNSS-1I, was efficiently positioned into orbit on 12 April 2018.
  • In July 2017, it was reported that two extra clocks within the navigational system had additionally begun exhibiting indicators of abnormality, thereby taking the whole variety of failed clocks to 5, in Could 2018 a failure of an additional Four clocks was reported, taking the depend to 9 of the 24 in orbit.
  1. As a precaution to increase the operational lifetime of the navigation satellite system, ISRO is working just one rubidium atomic clock as a substitute of two within the remaining satellites.

9. Future developments

India’s Department of Space of their 12th 5 12 months Plan (FYP 2012–17) acknowledged growing the variety of satellites within the constellation from 7 to 11 to increase protection.

  • These further 4 satellites will likely be made throughout 12th FYP and will likely be launched to start with of 13th FYP in geosynchronous orbit of 42° inclination.

Additionally, the event of space-qualified Indian made atomic clocks was initiated, together with a research and growth initiative for an all-optical atomic clock (extremely secure for IRNSS and deep space communication).

  • IRNSS-1J, IRNSS-1K, IRNSS-1L, IRNSS-1M, and IRNSS-1N are a subsequent batch of space crafts in growth.

10. Global Indian Navigation System (GINS)

Examine and evaluation for the Global Indian Navigation System (GINS) was initiated as a part of the expertise and coverage initiatives within the 12th FYP (2012–17).

  • The system is meant to have a constellation of 24 satellites, positioned 24,000 km (14,913 mi) above Earth.

As of 2013, the statutory filing for the frequency spectrum of GINS satellite System orbits in the worldwide area has been accomplished.


11. Advantages

IRNSS is an impartial regional navigation satellite system being developed by India.

  • It’s designed to supply correct place info service to customers in India in addition to the area extending as much as 1500 km from its boundary, which is its main service space.

A Prolonged Service Space lies between main service space and space enclosed by the rectangle from Latitude 30o south to 50o North, Longitude 30o east to 130o east.


IRNSS will present two sorts of providers, particularly, Standard Positioning Service (SPS) which is offered to all of the customers, and Restricted Service (RS), which is an encrypted service offered solely to the authorized customers.

  • The IRNSS System is anticipated to supply a place accuracy of higher than 20 m within the main service space.

12. Some purposes of IRNSS are:

  • Terrestrial, Aerial, and Marine Navigation
  • Catastrophe Administration
  • Car monitoring and fleet administration
  • Integration with cell phones
  • Exact Timing
  • Mapping and Geodetic information seize
  • Terrestrial navigation help for hikers and travelers
  • Visible and voice navigation for drivers

The IRNSS Sign-in-House Interface Management for Standard Positioning Service (SPS) is launched to the general public to supply the important info on the IRNSS signal-in-space, to facilitate analysis & growth, and help the business use of the IRNSS alerts for navigation-based purposes.

13. Facts About IRNSS

  • Period for Completion

The total time required to complete the process of development takes 10 years.

  • Manufacturer

The manufacturer is the ISRO( Indian Space Research Organization).

  • Mission Type

The Mission Type is Navigation

  • Operator

The Operator is the ISRO ( Indian Space Research Organization).

  • When did India realize he needs such a type of navigation system.?

India realizes that he needs a full functioning navigation system to see the enemy’s army at Kargil War.


Hope you know all about IRNSS, The operation NavIC, Background, Growth, The timeframe, System description, Floor phase, Sign, Accuracy.

Clock failure, Future developments, Global Indian Navigation System (GINS), Advantages, purposes, Facts About IRNSS.

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